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PostPosted: Tue May 14, 2019 4:07 pm 
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Narcissism and self-esteem: A nomological network analysis
Published: August 1, 2018
PLoS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201088

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/artic ... ne.0201088

Abstract

Similarity between narcissism and self-esteem seems intuitive, as both capture positive perceptions of the self. In the current undertaking, we provide a broad comparison of the nomological networks of grandiose narcissism and explicit self-esteem. Pooling data from 11 existing samples (N = 4711), we compared the relations of narcissism and self-esteem to developmental experiences, individual differences, interpersonal functioning, and psychopathology. Both constructs are positively related to agentic traits and assertive interpersonal approaches, but differ in relation to agreeableness/communion. Self-esteem emerged as a wholly adaptive construct negatively associated with internalizing psychopathology and generally unrelated to externalizing behaviors. Unlike self-esteem, narcissism was related to callousness, grandiosity, entitlement, and demeaning attitudes towards others that likely partially explain narcissism’s links to maladaptive outcomes.

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Introduction

Narcissism is a personality construct typically characterized by grandiosity, vanity, entitlement, and exploitativeness. In comparison, Rosenberg defined self-esteem as a global, affective self-evaluation that can range from very negative to very positive. Considering this definition, the presence of a positive relation between narcissism and self-esteem seems intuitive, as both appear to capture positive perceptions of the self. It is easy to imagine how a prototypically grandiose narcissistic individual (i.e., arrogant, entitled, excessively self-promotional) might be construed as having particularly high self-esteem. However, existing empirical evidence suggests that framing narcissism as purely an exaggeration of high self-esteem may be an inaccurate depiction of these constructs. This is not to deny their apparent similarities, given that individuals with narcissistic traits, like those with high self-esteem, are likely to be perceived as confident and assertive, and to have pride in themselves. Nevertheless, important differences between narcissism and self-esteem have been identified in terms of their developmental origins, trajectory over the lifespan, relations to prosocial and antisocial behavior, occupational performance, self-presentational tactics, and psychological health, which make it clear that self-esteem and narcissism are not isomorphic.

Narcissism, self-esteem, and extraversion/agency vs. agreeableness/communion

Both self-esteem and narcissism are associated with feeling positively about the self, but not necessarily in the same way. One critical difference between the two appears to be the extent to which positive self-evaluative criteria are unlimited and available to all (self-esteem) or are finite and only attainable by those with ostensibly special abilities (narcissism). Campbell and colleagues framed this distinction in terms of communal and agentic qualities of the self. Communal traits (e.g., warmth, nurturance, agreeableness) connect the self to the larger social world (and thus are plentiful), whereas agentic traits (e.g., surgency, action, skill) differentiate the self from others and thus are relatively scarce. Put otherwise, communal traits allow one to “get along,” whereas agentic traits allow one to “get ahead”.

Indeed, this is evident in the scales often used to assess these constructs. The vast majority of studies that assess self-esteem use the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), given its psychometric properties and considerable cross-cultural support. Items such as “I take a positive attitude toward myself” and “I feel that I have a number of good qualities,” gauge individuals’ cognitions and emotions about themselves. The RSES also includes items such as “I feel that I’m a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others” and “I am able to do things as well as most other people.” Inherent in the interpretation of these items is Rosenberg’s distinction between adequacy and superiority. This measure reflects adequacy, and thus permits an individual with high self-esteem simultaneously to make positive evaluations about themselves and others. Individuals with high self-esteem do not necessarily see the world as a “zero-sum game,” in which some individuals will be characterized as winners and some as losers; that is, although they feel positively about themselves, this does not require that they denigrate others in comparison. The adequacy-reflecting RSES items stand in contrast to superiority-reflecting or “win-lose” items found in measures of narcissism such as the NPI, which includes “I think I am a special person,” “If I ruled the world, it would be a much better place,” “I like having authority over other people,” and “I find it easy to manipulate people.” Thinking positively about oneself does not necessitate preventing others from doing so, but manipulating others or wanting power over others implies putting one’s presumed competitors in a weaker or denigrated position.

Self-esteem also bears strong relations with agency/extraversion. In a multinational survey of 106 countries, extraversion emerged as a universal correlate of self-esteem, but agreeableness did not, supporting the hypothesis that self-esteem, like narcissism, is associated with being assertive and active in one’s social world.

Narcissism, self-esteem, and neuroticism/maladaptive functioning

A second critical difference concerns the degree of functional adaptivity associated with narcissism and self-esteem. In a large sample (N = 326,641), self-esteem was strongly related to emotional stability (i.e., low neuroticism) and extraversion. Given that emotional stability/neuroticism is the personality dimension most strongly associated with internalizing disorders, self-esteem may either act as a buffer against this form of psychopathology or result from good psychological health. Regardless, self-esteem’s relation to extraversion suggests that it is predominantly associated with a disposition toward positive emotions. This claim is corroborated by self-esteem’s negative relation to the onset of mood disorders as well as poorer physical health. Although narcissism is also related to emotional stability, this relation is relatively small and much weaker than that found for self-esteem. As noted, Sedikides and colleagues reported that the extent to which narcissism is associated with self-esteem explains any positive association between narcissism and (low) neuroticism. Thus, whereas narcissism appears to be somewhat negatively related to internalizing pathology, self-esteem appears to be a stronger protective factor.

Additionally, Robins and colleagues found that self-esteem showed small, positive relations to conscientiousness and agreeableness. Several meta-analyses suggest that these domains of personality are the most potently related to antisocial behavior (e.g., violence, substance use). On the other hand, narcissism is characterized–both theoretically and empirically, by low agreeableness/high antagonism. Furthermore, narcissism is robustly linked to aggression, whereas self-esteem is typically unrelated to it. Thus, whereas self-esteem appears to bear generally small and negative relations with externalizing behaviors, narcissism appears to be a key risk factor for externalizing pathology related to antagonism, particularly negative interpersonal behaviors that follow ego threat. In sum, self-esteem seems to function as a protective factor against internalizing psychopathology, and to manifest small and negative relations to externalizing behavior. Alternately, whereas narcissism exhibits small and negative relations to internalizing psychopathology, it is a significant risk factor for externalizing behavior.

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PostPosted: Tue May 14, 2019 4:11 pm 
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Why Do People Mistake Narcissism for High Self-Esteem?
by Scott Barry Kaufman, December 3, 2018

https://scottbarrykaufman.com/why-do-pe ... lf-esteem/

The “charismatic air” of narcissists– from their flashy attire, to their self-assured behaviors, to their charming glances, to their witty humor– often makes a big first impression. At the same time, people seem to be really good at accurately perceiving narcissism in others based on minimal information (even just physical appearance is usually enough of a cue to accurately perceive narcissism). Which raises an interesting question: why are narcissists– which are characterized by extremely high levels of exhibitionism, arrogance, sense of superiority, vanity, entitlement, exploitativeness, and the incessant need for acclaim from others– so attractive?

Canadian researchers Miranda Giacomin and Christian Jordan thought there might be more than meets the narcissistic eye. To shed further light on the allure of narcissism, they examined whether narcissists make positive first impressions because people may confuse narcissism for high self-esteem. While many people tend to think that narcissists score sky high in self-esteem, the association between narcissism and self-esteem is actually rather small, and narcissism and self-esteem have very different developmental pathways and outcomes.*

Those with a healthy self-esteem believe they are worthy and competent, and strive for intimate, meaningful connections with others, but do not necessarily see themselves as superior to others. In contrast, narcissists think they are superior to others, but they don’t necessarily view themselves as worthy. Indeed, because they often lack an inner stable sense of self-security, the narcissists’ sense of self-esteem is often almost entirely dependent on the validation of others. Could it be that people are confusing the two?

This is just what the researchers found. People who scored high in narcissism and self-esteem were perceived as having higher self-esteem than people who were equally high in self-esteem but less narcissistic. They even looked at dating profiles and found that heterosexual female participants indicated greater interest in meeting males who were more narcissistic based on their Tinder profile pictures, and this effect was specifically explained by higher perception of self-esteem, not narcissism. These results suggest that perceptions of narcissism were being overridden by the positive effect of perceptions of self-esteem on liking.

But here’s the kicker: perceptions of narcissism by itself were associated with less liking of the person. In fact, the pattern of greater liking of narcissists was reversed when perceivers were explicitly told that narcissistic targets scored high in narcissism. In these cases, people preferred those who scored high in self-esteem but low in narcissism.

Why do people perceive narcissists as having especially high self-esteem?

These findings suggest that those scoring high in narcissism make positive first impressions because people perceive them to have high self-esteem, causing them to overlook their narcissism (even in dating profiles). However, people aren’t attracted to the narcissism per se, and the pattern of greater liking was reversed when perceivers were explicitly told that people scored high in narcissism. Why are so many people misperceiving narcissism as self-esteem? The researchers raise some possibilities.

One possibility is that people hold an implicit belief that narcissists have exceptionally high self-esteem, and so perceptions of narcissism may lead them to infer higher self-esteem. This possibility seems unlikely considering perceptions of narcissism were negatively associated with liking of the person.

A more likely explanation is that narcissists are expert manipulators of the signals associated with self-esteem. Self-esteem is a socially valuable trait, and other studies have also found that people are viewed more positively when they are perceived as having higher levels of self-esteem. It’s likely that those scoring high in narcissism are very aware of this fact, and strategically present themselves in ways that convey high self-esteem.

There is also likely an interaction between the perceiver and the narcissist. It takes two to tango. Because those scoring higher in narcissism do tend to be more popular and have larger social networks than those scoring lower in narcissism, people may have the drive to associate with them to attain status by association. After all, to have narcissistic needs is to be human, and narcissists are very good at drawing in vulnerable people who are particularly deficient in their esteem needs.

With that said, some people may be more likely than others to perceive narcissists more positively not because they are vulnerable, but because they have their own extremely high drive for social status and power, and think the narcissist can help them reach their goals. It would be interesting for future studies to look at the narcissism levels of the perceiver.

While narcissists can be so alluring at first, the attraction is likely to falter once people begin to recognize the narcissists’ less desirable qualities and the superficial nature of the connection. Indeed, narcissists live in the “emerging zone“, situations involving unacquainted individuals, early-stage relationships, and short-term contexts. It is in this zone that narcissists are more likely to be perceived positively, because they are motivated to make a good first impression.

In contrast, narcissists tend to crash and burn in the “enduring zone”, situations involving acquainted individuals, continuing relationships, and long-term consequences. As the relationship develops, narcissists start displaying behaviors that are evaluated negatively, such as arrogance and aggression. Narcissists cyclically return to the emerging zone because they are addicted to the positive social feedback and emotional rush they get from the emerging zone. As a result, they are good at being popular, making new friends, and acquiring social status, but often have great difficulties sustaining meaningful and intimate relationships.

Implications

There are obvious implications here for dating and politics. In the realm of dating, often the most valuable dating partners will not announce themselves with flashy attire and a perfectly orchestrated smile. In fact, it’s quite the opposite: those with a healthy self-esteem usually don’t feel the incessant need to announce their greatest qualities upfront, because they are confident that all will be revealed in time (they have a stable sense of worth). Perhaps we should all give people more of a chance in the realm of dating and relationships, and not mistake being reserved or even just quietly confident as a lack of self-esteem.

In terms of implications for politics, consider this study: “Is high self-esteem a path to the White House? The implicit theory of self-esteem and the willingness to vote for presidential candidates.” Since so many people are swayed in their voting decisions by their perceptions of the self-esteem levels of the candidates, it seems important to accurately distinguish between narcissism and high self-esteem– especially considering that the current president of the United States is giving so much hope and inspiration to narcissistic entertainers that they, too, can one day become president.

Finally, I think there are some important implications for those scoring high in narcissism. I like to think compassionately about all different sources of variation, and I think those who score high on the narcissistic spectrum create a lot of unnecessary suffering for themselves as well as others. Instead of spending so much strategically manipulating the perceptions of others, I believe their time would be better spent cultivating a real sense of self-worth, and genuinely mastering things that make them feel proud of their earned competence.

While we often don’t think about narcissists as suffering, and it’s very easy to look at the showy exhibitionist with mocking glee, we must recognize that to be narcissistic is human, and we all shift our placement on the spectrum throughout our lives. When grandiosity gets too big (my colleague Emmanuel Jauk and I have quantified this tipping point), it can lead to great vulnerability, fear, anxiety, and even depression. Therefore, accurately distinguishing between narcissism and healthy self-esteem is pretty important, not only for the perceiver who scores low in narcissism, but also for those who are addicted to esteem.



Note: A big limitation of these studies is that it that they are mostly conducted on college undergraduates. There is undoubtedly a huge age effect here, and as people get older they most likely become more accurate at distinguishing between narcissism and high self-esteem, and are less likely to find narcissistic displays of confidence attractive even at first acquaintance.

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The opposite for courage is not cowardice, it is conformity. Even a dead fish can go with the flow.


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PostPosted: Tue May 14, 2019 4:52 pm 
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This is how it looks from a healthy self assessment point of view, at the top level on vide game competitiveness environment.
Words, from Daigo Umehara to young players.

It seems like tought love, but is more like compassion for young players. A Very good rant form Daigo.
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